Community, Education Development andChild Abuse in our society “The WayForward”
PART 1: #ObobanjShow
Arguably,this has been society’s response to all forms of child abuse and innately good,it seems a child or young person may now be portrayed as a preventivestrategies development through community consultation and research.
Educationis an essential tool for achieving sustainability. People around the worldrecognize that current economic development trends are not sustainable and thatpublic awareness, education and training are key to moving society towardsustainability. Beyond that, there is little agreement. People argue about themeaning of sustainable development and whether or not it is attainable. Theyhave different visions of what sustainable societies will look like and howthey will function. These same people wonder why educators have not moved morequickly to develop education for sustainability program (EfSP).
Thelack of agreement and definition have stymied efforts to move education forsustainable development forward. It is curious to note that while we havedifficulty envisioning a sustainable world, we have no difficulty identifyingwhat is unsustainable in our societies. We can rapidly create a laundry list ofproblems;
1. Inefficientuse of energy.
2. Lackof water conservation.
4. Abuseof human rights.
5. Overuseof personal transportation.
Butwe should not chide ourselves because we lack a clear definition ofsustainability. Indeed, many truly great concepts of the human world among themdemocracy and justice, are hard to define and have multiple expressions incultures around the world.
Inthe toolkit, I used three (3) termssynonymously and interchangeable;Education for Sustainability Development (ESD), Education for Sustainability(EfS), and Sustainability Education (SE). I used ESD most often, because it is the terminology used frequently atinternational level and within UNdocuments. Locally and Nationally, the ESDeffort may be named or described in many ways because of language and culturaldifferences.
Inother to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shallconstitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be consideredin isolation from it. Eradicating of Poverty and controlling child abuse,disparities in living standard in different community are essential to achievesustainable development and meet the need of the people.
Hereare some principles to aid the sustainable development in our variouscommunities;
1. Communityshall cooperate to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity ofearth ecosystem.
2. Communityshould reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production andconsumption, and promote appropriate demographic policies.
3. Environmentalissues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens.
4. Communityshall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by makingenvironmental information widely available.
5. Communityshall enact effective environmental laws and develop national law regardingliability for the victims of pollution, Child abuse, and environmental damage.
6. Wherethey have authority, Community shall asses the environmental impact of proposedactivities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact.
7. Communityshould cooperate to promote an open international economic system that willlead to economic growth and sustainable means of restricting internationaltrade.
8. Thepolluters should, in principle bear the cost of pollution.
9. Communityshould warn one another of natural disasters or activities that may haveharmful transboundary impacts; sustainable development requires betterscientific understanding of the problem.
10. Communityshould share knowledge and innovative technologies, where Olukunle Oluwole Foundation represents to achieve the goal ofsustainability.
Thefull participation of women is essential to achieve sustainable development.The creativity, ideals and courage of youth and the knowledge of indigenouspeople are needed too.
Theseprinciples help us to grasp the abstract concepts of sustainable developmentand begin to implement it. Sustainable development has three (3) components;Environment, Society and Economy.
Thehuman right community says that sustainability is attainable through andsupported by peace, justice and democracy. Economics educators saysustainability is living on the interest rather than the principle.
PART 2: #ObobanjShow
Never be afraid to be yourself.7268
Childabuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a childor children.
My views to the e-discussion on "Enabling environment and legal incentives for women's employment" co-organized by UNDP, UN Women and the World Bank Group which enable and incentivize greater participation of women in the economy and in the labour market.
Sustainable development can only be achieved through long-term investments in economic, human and environmental capital. At present, the female half of the world’s human capital is undervalued and underutilized the world over. As a group, women and their potential contributions to economic advances, social progress and environmental protection have been marginalized. Better use of the world’s female population could increase economic growth, reduce poverty, enhance societal well-being, and help ensure sustainable development in all countries. Closing the gender gap depends on enlightened government policies which take gender dimensions into account.
This views aims to increase understanding of the role of women in maintaining the three pillars economic, social and environmental of sustainable development. This view illustrates how gender mainstreaming in statistics, studies and statutes can lead to more sustainable government policies and a better world economy.
Sustainable development rests on maintaining long-term economic, social and environmental capital. While the importance of investing in economic assets to assure progress has long been recognized, sustainable development brings attention to the ecological and human dimensions which are also key to growth and development. In failing to make the best use of
their female populations, most countries are under investing in the human capital needed to assure sustainability. Although women account for over one-half of the potential talent base throughout the world, as a group they have been marginalized and their economic, social and environmental contributions go in large part unrealized. This market and systems failure is discussed here in terms of gender constraints, which are based on the socially-constructed and historically developed roles of men and women. Exploring the various aspects of sustainable development with a gender perspective, e.g. the place of women, highlights the economic costs of continuing gender gaps. It also illuminates how female contributions can be better realized at present and how strategies can be developed for meeting the needs of future generations, women and men alike.
Making Use of Female Human Capital: Benefits and Policies
Studies find that if better use were made of the world’s female human capital:
1) Economic growth would increase in all countries;
2) The number of people living in poverty would decline in all countries;
3) Fertility rates would rise in OECD countries and decline in non-OECD countries;
4) Business performance and innovation would be enhanced;
5) The cost-effectiveness of health care and social programmes would be raised;
6) Government policies would better respond to the needs of all citizens; and
7) Environmental damage from unsustainable activities would decrease.
This depends on engendered government policies including:
1) Family-Friendly policies to increase the labour force participation of women;
2) Development assistance policies which promote the economic role of women;
3) Upgrading the status of and wages for traditional areas of women’s work;
4) Incentives to women to enter science and technology careers;
5) Increased access to finance and support services for women entrepreneurs;
6) Gender-specific approaches in health care planning and treatment;
7) Better integration of women migrants in labour markets and society;
Setting targets and goals for women managers and parliamentarians; and
9) Giving greater weight to female perspectives in environmental policies.
Women and Economic Growth
Women, which constitute half of the world’s human capital, are one of its most underutilized resources. Sustainable economic growth at national and global levels depends on women joining the labour force and fuller use being made of their skills and qualifications. More working women would also help offset the negative effects of declining fertility rates and ageing populations in many countries.
In recent decades, a large share of economic growth has come from employing more women. Since 1995, narrowing the gap
between male and female employment rates has accounted for half of the increase in Europe’s overall employment rate and a quarter of annual economic growth. It is estimated that if female employment were raised to the male rate, growth in gross domestic product (GDP) would be substantial, particularly in countries such as Japan (CSR, 2007). Similarly, a study in the
United Kingdom found that the country could gain 2% of GDP by better harnessing women’s skills (WWC, 2006).
The rate of female participation in the labour force is significantly lower than that of men in all countries. However, there are wide variations stemming from social and economic factors as well as public policies. The employment gender gap is most pronounced in countries such as Turkey, Mexico, Italy and Greece, where less than 50% of women work. Female employment rates are highest at over 70% in Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.
Labour force participation, however, does not mean full-time work. Women are far more likely to work part-time than men. In the Netherlands, 60% of employed women work on a part-time basis. The economic contributions of women fall far short of their potential owing partly to their reduced working schedules.
Even when women work the same hours, they earn less than men due to persistent gender wage gaps. In Japan and Korea, female earnings are at least one-third less than male earnings. Female pay is over 20% less in countries such as Germany,
Switzerland, Canada and the United States. In part, this is because women have lower-level jobs or work in female-dominated fields such as education and health care, which are generally underpaid. Nevertheless, wage gaps are highest in management positions where the educational background and work experience of women and men are very similar.
Women’s work in the home is also undervalued. In all countries, women perform the bulk of household duties without pay, even while working in the labour force. But female “non-financial” activities go unreflected in official statistics, thereby undercutting the contribution of women’s unpaid work to the economic growth of countries.
Strong economies and manageable pension systems in the future depend on higher female employment rates. Governments should remove obstacles that make it hard for women with children to work and provide other incentives to increase the female presence in the labour force.
Care of children and household responsibilities fall in large part on women with deleterious effects on their working lives. Women are disadvantaged in the workplace by time poverty (juggling the needs of home and work), intermittency (taking time off to care for children or elderly parents), and lack of mobility (needing a job close to home and family).
Countries which have mandated and funded family-friendly policies to address these anomalies are those which are reaping the economic benefits of more working women. A top priority is childcare. For many families, formal childcare is unavailable, unaffordable and/or of poor quality. Greater access to childcare facilities, subsidized and monitored by public authorities, is the most effective way that governments can enable women to work.
But in the Scandanavian countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) as well as France, childcare enrollment rates are much higher due to public spending on childcare services, including during afterschool hours and vacations. It is no coincidence that these countries have higher levels of women in the workforce.
Other family-friendly practices, including paid leave and flexible work arrangements, can have net benefits in terms of overall productivity, work performance and growth. Paid parental leave allows both women and men to take care of children for prescribed periods, without suffering adverse income and employment effects. Governments can also legislate flexible
work approaches which allow employees with young children to change their working hours (e.g. in the Netherlands), reduce their hours (e.g. Sweden), request modified schedules (e.g. the United Kingdom) or engage in more tele-working.
Monetary incentives are also needed. Governments can take steps to better remunerate women’s work, which is often assigned a lower value in terms of skill requirements and pay. In fact, many jobs occupied by women require levels of skills, responsibilities, task variation and complexity similar to those of higher paid jobs held by men, and female wages should
reflect this. Tax systems should be designed so that second earners in a family, often women who earn far less, are not taxed at the same rate as the male primary earner. Welfare benefits for single parents should be accompanied by childcare support and incentives to seek employment. In addition, accounting for unpaid female services (household duties, childcare) should be included in national wealth calculations to better reflect their workloads and contributions.
There is a misperception that working women have fewer children and population levels will decline with more family-friendly approaches. In fact, countries with policies that facilitate female employment are those with the highest fertility rates, thus increasing the future supply of workers as well as sustained growth. Countries which offer less support for
working mothers, e.g. Germany, Japan and Italy, evidence lower birth rates because women postpone childbearing in order to enter the workforce.
Mobilizing female and maternal labour supply through explicit targets and programmes is key to sustainable economic growth in the long-term.
Women and Poverty Reduction
Women represent more than 70% of the world’s poor due to unequal access to economic opportunities in both developed and developing countries. Increasing female participation in the workforce would reduce the number of people living in poverty since women and children account for most of the poor even in the richest countries. In developing countries, the failure to value women’s work is a significant barrier to reducing poverty and fostering economic growth.
Internationally, there is a link between poverty alleviation in countries and the development of their female human capital. The Gender Gap Index shows a correlation between gender equality (as measured by the economic participation, education, health and political empowerment of women) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita.
Although economic progress can improve the status of women, it is also true that a country cannot advance if its women are left behind. Poverty reduction in poorer countries depends in large part on women, whose work tends to go unremunerated. In addition to their key role in household management and caring for children, the sick and the elderly, women are responsible for essential tasks such as fetching increasingly scarce firewood and water. In many regions, women spend up to five hours a day collecting fuel and water and up to four hours a day preparing food.
Women’s productivity in these home-based roles is low due to their more limited access to education, health care and other services. Women and girls in developing countries and poor environments are often the last to receive health care. They suffer from lack of nutrition, often eating last and least. They suffer more from the effects of second-hand smoke and indoor air pollution due to burning traditional biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water lead to millions of children, particularly girls, being kept off school. Due to discrimination in food intake and medical care, women’s life expectancies in many countries are often lower than men’s despite the fact that statistically women should live longer.
Women in the labour force in developing countries, including services, agriculture and manufacturing, do not fare much better. Female workers around the world fill the majority of paid domestic service jobs and are growing more important to the agricultural sector. In Southeast Asia, for example, women provide up to 90% of the labour for rice cultivation, and in
Africa, women are two-thirds of the workforce in the horticultural sector. In manufacturing, female workers are heavily concentrated in low-wage, labour-intensive sectors such as clothing, processed food products and household goods.
Because these women are often denied basic working rights, including minimum wages and labour representation, market distortions arise as economic resources do not reach those who could make the most use of them. Women often do not have the same access to and control over capital and resources as men or equal rights of inheritance, ownership, freedom, and
power over decision-making including their own reproductive health.
Traditions, customs and social norms often hold the key to understanding the roots of gender inequalities (Jutting et.al, 2008). Yet economic returns on investments in women are generally greater than those in men. GNP per capita is far lower in countries where females are significantly less well-educated than men. Studies in Africa find that primary education for women can raise food crop yields by as much as 20%, while equal access to capital for women could increase agricultural output by 15%. Reducing the household time burdens on women could increase agricultural labour productivity by 15% and capital productivity by as much as 44% in some countries (World Bank, 2001).
Improving the access of women to education and health care as well as economic opportunities can have significant positive outcomes for poverty reduction. Lower fertility rates, better nutrition for all family members, and reduced infant, child, and maternal mortality are among the social gains from targeting women. Data from developing countries indicate that one to
three years of maternal schooling reduces child mortality by 15% while an equivalent level of paternal schooling achieves only a 6% reduction. Female-headed households spend a far larger share of their income on food, healthcare and education, so that financial assistance to mothers has greater beneficial effects on family health than income in the hands of fathers (World Bank, 2001).
Focusing on women in development assistance can achieve more rapid and pro-poor economic growth than “gender neutral” approaches. Because of their essential contributions to household welfare, both unpaid and paid, women are key to poverty reduction in developing countries. Investing in women and girls in their education, health, and access to assets and jobs –
has a multiplier effect on productivity, efficiency and sustained economic growth in developing countries (World Bank, 2006).
However, the share of aid focused on gender ranges from 1% to 82% among reporting countries. More than 40% of aid to basic education and health targets gender-specific concerns. This includes enhanced access for women and girls to education and improvements in basic health care including reproductive health. Some programmes are directed to improving the social
safety net for women and girls, while others aim at building government capacity to incorporate gender perspectives in development planning.
Increasing the workforce participation of women is the key to faster growth and poverty reduction in countries. However, gender-related aid flows still tend to have social rather than economic aims. In order to maximize female contributions, donors need to see women as active players in the economy and overall poverty reduction.
Aid programmes should be targeted more to maximizing the economic contributions of women to both the formal and informal economies. For example, aid could be directed towards developing income-generating initiatives based on women’s traditional roles in home and health services, nutrition, and agriculture. Development assistance could empower women to
compete in land, labour, product and financial markets.
Aid to infrastructure such as transport, energy and communications accounts for a third of all bilateral aid, but little is focused on the needs of women. More time-saving and labour-saving technologies for fuel and water gathering and cash crop production could greatly ease women’s traditional chores and make them more productive members of society.
Targeted investments in transport infrastructure could improve the access of women and girls to markets, schools and jobs. Although information and communications technologies (ICT) can provide women with access to online services such as health care and education and raise their income generation potential, the gender digital divide remains most severe in poorer
Effective anti-poverty strategies also need to consider the role of social institutions and culture, particularly in limiting the access of women to employment, inheritance and finance. The underlying causes of discrimination can be addressed through promoting changes in legal structures including property rights provisions, inheritance laws, divorce laws and family codes, and engaging in cultural exchanges and communications campaigns to influence public opinion towards more gender equity. Ensuring labour representation and minimum wages for women in agricultural, manufacturing and services employment is equally important. These strategies must not ignore the crucial role of men, who may require compensation or offsetting initiatives if they tend to lose status from the reforms.
Gender issues may be easier to integrate into the new aid architecture prompted by the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The challenge is to ensure that improving the status of women in both social and economic terms is harmonised across country programmes, aligned with the development strategies of recipients, and closely monitored. For more effective poverty reduction, differential gender impacts should be considered in the entire package of development activities to enhance women’s opportunities through investments in livelihoods, infrastructure and legal rights as well as education and health.
Women and Technology
Women workers with a science and technology (S&T) background are a key resource in today’s knowledge-based economies. There is rising demand for S&T workers, and job growth in this area is being driven by increases in female employment. But women remain vastly underrepresented in S&T studies at both secondary and tertiary levels of education and in the overall technical workforce. Greater female participation in computer science, engineering and technology-oriented jobs would spur innovation and economic advances in all countries.
Lesser involvement of young girls in science and technology can be observed as early as the secondary school level, where less than one-third of students in advanced chemistry, physics or biology classes are women in most countries. Despite growing computer literacy among all students, the gender digital divide is also evident in high school. In the United States, for example, only 15% of those enrolled in advanced computer science classes are girls. Yet assessments of scientific literacy of 15-year-olds find that there are no entrenched gender differences in math and science performance.
The science and technology gender gap relates more to attitudes than to aptitudes. Boys are more likely than girls to choose science subjects to study in higher education and to have more positive attitudes towards science generally. Girls are much less likely to major in computer science, engineering or physical sciences. Although women receive more than half of university degrees in the OECD area, women account for only 30% of degrees in science and technology. The share of women receiving computing-related degrees varies more across countries, ranging from just under 10% for Belgium, Switzerland and the Netherlands to 40% in Sweden and Finland.
Women and Management
Women’s representation in management positions in both the private and public sectors is markedly low and evidences another failure to make full use of available human capital. The result of this managerial gender gap is the reduced
performance, innovation and effectiveness of firms and governments. Male employment rates in managerial posts are higher than female rates in all countries. The share of women in management is greatest in the United States, United Kingdom and Ireland, and lowest in Southern European countries such as Spain, Greece and Italy. But even in the United States, despite representing a large share of management and professional positions, women still made up only 2% of Chief Executive
Officers (CEOs) in the Fortune 500 companies.
This managerial gender gap persists despite evidence that women managers can improve the economic performance of companies and organizations. In general, women managers bring a wider range of perspectives to bear in corporate decision-making, contribute team-building and communication skills, and help organizations adapt to changing circumstances. In a series of studies, Fortune 500 companies with more women board directors are shown to have significantly better financial
performance, including 53% higher returns on equity, 42% higher returns to sales, and 66% higher returns on invested capital (Catalyst, 2007). Including more women in managerial teams has been found to increase the innovation capacity of companies (LBS, 2007a). In an international study of large corporations, those with a higher proportion of women in top management demonstrated the best performance in terms of work environment, innovation, accountability and profits (McKinsey, 2007).
In both the public and private sectors, stereotypes persist that women are not leadership material. This has led to the “pipeline problem” with the proportion of women in senior roles stagnant and even decreasing. Three types of interventions can help counteract these trends:
1) Establishing and monitoring targets for women managers.
2) Setting up networking and development programmes,
3) Ensuring family-friendly work practices.
Increasing the number of women managers can be tackled like any other management challenge: by setting clear goals and targets, monitoring results and rewarding progress. A survey of corporate best practice in Europe found that 27% of leading companies set targets for the number of women in senior executive roles (LBS, 2007b). In 2003, Norway passed a law decreeing that all publicly-listed corporations must have at least 40% women on their boards, which is a main reason the country leads the world in the number of female directors. Senior politicians in other Nordic countries are proposing to legislate quotas for companies if the number of women on boards does not increase to 25%-40%.
Targets and quotas have also been set by governments for the share of women managers in the public service. Since 1995, the European Union has set annual targets for the appointment of women to all top-grade posts, with almost a quarter of the 6 000 top jobs now filled by women. Norway has quotas for the number of women managers in government at all levels.
Norwegian law also requires that women make up at least 40% of the members of all official committees, boards, councils, and delegations.
Sweden set goals for women in managerial positions in the public sector, which is now 56%. In Canada, the goal is to ensure balanced representation (50/50) of men and women in all parts of the public service. Women are often excluded from informal networks and lack mentors and development experiences which limits their advancement.
Policies should not be aimed towards helping women adapt to a male-centred work environment, but rather to promoting changes in organizations to discourage gender stereotyping (Wittenberg-Cox, 2008). Mentoring programmes for female employees are needed to supplement active recruitment of women for upper management positions. Professional networks both within and outside the place of work can act as support to mentoring and coaching.
Targets can be set for developmental assignments for women, including specialized training, project management and high-level tasks. Women generally need to take time off from their careers to care for children and family, which interrupts career progression and contributes to perceptions that women are less committed to work. Gendered policies around flexible working are fundamental to the development of women managers as well as the recognition that women follow different career paths than men. Family-friendly work practices are key to both recruiting and retaining women managers.
Governments can provide incentives to companies to implement flexible hours, part-time work and childcare, to subsidize paid leave for both mothers and fathers, and to allow career breaks for women with children.
Entrepreneurs, or individuals starting up new firms, are crucial to productivity and growth in all countries. At present, new enterprise creation is fueled by the development of technology-based and service sector. Levels of entrepreneurship are highest in countries showing the fastest growth. The number of women entrepreneurs, as seen in female to male start-up ratios, is also growing fastest in these countries, which include the United States and Canada. While a growing number of women are becoming entrepreneurs, women-owned ventures are as yet an untapped source of business and job creation.
More men than women are self-employed or have their own firms in all countries, and the gender gaps are particularly large in Turkey, Ireland, Iceland, Sweden and Japan. Levels of female entrepreneurship are highest in Canada, Switzerland, the United States and Austria.
Women often become entrepreneurs out of a desire to exploit innovative ideas or market niches. They may venture into entrepreneurship as a way out of “no point” jobs, to gain independence from exploitative practices or to be one’s own boss. The ability to work flexible hours is very attractive to women who want to combine work and family responsibilities. They may also gravitate towards self-employment because of a lack of alternative positions, blocked mobility or the inability to find a job that fits their skills.
Entrepreneurship and self-employment may sometimes be a survival strategy for those who cannot find any other means of earning an income. Women confront barriers to creating and developing enterprises and becoming entrepreneurs. All small firms face administrative obstacles in terms of forms, procedures, and delays in setting up shop.
Surveys find that the smallest companies those with less than 20 employees endure more than five times the administrative burden per employee than larger firms. These burdens tend to be more acute for female entrepreneurs owing to the characteristics of their firms, which are of very small size and predominantly in service or retail sectors.
Women entrepreneurs often have less experience than men dealing with complicated procedures, including financial arrangements, and little information about sources of help. Surveys of financial literacy find that women have less understanding and confidence in making financial decisions than do men. Yet women are disadvantaged in accessing financial information and resources because they are less likely to be able to afford these services and are not linked to mainstream business networks.
Women also have more problems obtaining business credit in all countries. This is despite evidence that women demonstrate high loan repayment rates as well as default rates significantly lower than those of men. Banks and financial institutions traditionally have little experience in lending to women and may have a bias against them as poor credit risks.
The female credit crunch is particularly severe in poorer countries due to the disadvantaged position of women and their lack of legal rights; most banks require that borrowers be wage earners or property owners who can provide acceptable collateral.
Countries are missing business opportunities because women are not reaching their potential entrepreneurial levels. More than men, they lack access to finance, information and networks. Countries should decrease the administrative and regulatory barriers that making setting up a new firm difficult and constitute invisible barriers to business start-ups, particularly for women. These include excessive red tape, time delays, labour market regulations and legal requirements. To ease the path for women entrepreneurs, governments should also increase targeted financing and training.
Governments can increase female access to credit. Many banks and financial institutions generally lack experience in dealing with small firms, new businesses and venture capital as well as with women. Some governments are undertaking programmes to accelerate learning in assessing entrepreneurial risk as well as promoting special lending programmes for
women. This includes increasing credit lines through commercial banks to benefit women entrepreneurs and helping to establish women’s banks or credit associations which specialize in female lending.
Micro-credit or micro-loans are an effective tool for helping prospective women business owners. Here, a small amount of money is lent to low income clients by a bank or other institution, usually with a fair repayment schedule and at normal interest rates. Micro-finance is one of the most effective ways to empower women and increase their access to sustainable
livelihoods and economic assets. Not only are micro-loans increasing the number of venture firms and activities, the lending institutions are finding this sound business. There are now over 3 000 micro-credit institutions reaching over 90 million clients, mostly in developing countries, and of the poorest clients, 83% are women (Daley-Harris, 2006).
Credit provisions should be accompanied by supportive advisory and networking services to provide women with basic marketing information and advice. These include advisory bureaus established at chambers of commerce and industry associations and points of entry on the Internet where female and other ventures can access information, forms and services
provided by various public agencies. Business incubators, often established at universities or business schools, are of particular value to women entrepreneurs in providing an infrastructure, links to investors and market opportunities as well as personalized assistance and training.
Networking programmes have been effective in increasing both the number and success rates of women starting their own businesses. Programmes engaging experienced female business owners in providing advice to potential women entrepreneurs help build such networks. Women entrepreneur associations can be a conduit for dissemination of business
information and provide support services for new female-owned start-ups. Initiatives to foster women entrepreneurs should also be part of local development strategies and enterprise creation policies.
Women and Education
Educating men and women is key to economic growth and sustainable development in countries. Raising the education
levels and literacy rates of women is one of the most effective investments for increasing female productivity as well as enhancing the well-being of families and children. Women are becoming more educated than men, the challenge is making better use of women’s qualifications. In developing countries, reducing gender inequality in literacy and in primary and secondary education is essential to reducing poverty and accelerating economic development. The educational gender gap in favour of women starts young. Girls now tend to do better at school than boys in almost all countries. For example, international assessments of 15-year-old students find that girls outperform boys in reading by a wide margin.
This gender differential is particularly large in Iceland, Norway, Austria and Finland and less apparent in countries such as Korea and the Netherlands. More women are now getting university degrees than men. In many Countries, well over half of all university degrees are being awarded to women. On average 33% of women aged 25-34 have tertiary education compared with 28% of men the same age. This differential persists when looking at the larger population. The gender gap in favour of
women is greatest in countries such as Canada, Finland and Sweden. In countries including Japan and Korea, men are receiving university degrees at a higher rate than women, but females are catching up. There are now 90 female Japanese students for every 100 males.
Women are now more highly educated than ever, increasing both their opportunities for employment and earning power. On
average, tertiary education substantially increases lifetime earnings and is a good investment for individuals and society as a whole. However, this tends to be less true for women. A main reason is the difference in the subjects that young men and women study at university. Women prefer health and welfare subjects with humanities, arts and education a close second. For male graduates, subjects related to engineering, manufacturing and construction come first, just ahead of mathematics and computer science. Women thus end up in female-dominated fields characterized by lower status and less well-paid jobs.
Primary education for women increases their labour force participation and earnings and also fosters educational investment in children. But more than two-thirds of the world’s illiterate adults are women. While more young girls are receiving primary education in even the poorest parts of the world, very few receive secondary and tertiary education (World Bank, 2006). This makes it likely that the third Millennium Development Goal “to promote gender equality and empower women” will not be attained since it is measured by the elimination of gender disparity in all levels of education by 2015.
Educating females is essential to increasing productivity in all economies, particularly in the developing world where it depends in large part on engendered development assistance policies. The challenge is keeping boys and men in the educational system while ensuring that the contributions of educated females are more fully realized. What is needed are a range of education and labour market policies directed to better reflecting the higher educational attainment of female school leavers in their later careers.
The transition from school-to-work tends to be more biased for females in terms of work opportunities. Guidance and counseling services should give information to girls and women on the range of jobs for which they can apply and the required skills. Women will benefit from financial and other incentives to enter more technical fields of study and work. Leadership and management training will assist them in aiming for and obtaining higherlevel positions in all fields. Injecting work experience into the educational curriculum, through such devices as work placements, work shadowing and school-based enterprises is very effective in broadening the ambitions and training of young women. They can be given access to types of industrial, scientific or managerial training which are now male-dominated.
Traditional areas of female work including teaching, nursing and social services should be upgraded to reflect their true contributions to the economy and society. Gender segregation in employment characterizes male and female positions in the labour market and is a major source of inequalities. The recognized value of jobs and the earnings attached to them vary according to whether they correspond to mainly female or mainly male activities and occupations. In addition, many female-dominated jobs are characterized by precarious employment conditions, a low degree of professionalization, lower pay and few training and career opportunities.
Improved correspondence between female education levels and their working life can be achieved through generalizing non-discrimination to female-dominated jobs. Professionalization of female occupations depends on unbiased job evaluations and better wages. Gender discrimination starts when assessing the skills and knowledge needed for certain job categories.
Male dominated positions tend to be rated as more complex and of higher value than skilled female occupations including nurses, teachers and secretaries. Governments need to reassess the qualifications and skills needed for different types of jobs on a gender-neutral scale. Equal pay legislation does not solve the gender wage gap since it addresses only discrimination in similar jobs with the same employer. More female-dominated jobs are becoming unionized which is leading to wage increases in some occupations. However, governments should link wages to unbiased job evaluation approaches, which will also cause more men to enter into what has been traditionally women’s work. In Canada, firms are required to adopt pay equity plans based on re-assessing positions held mainly by women and upgrading the qualifications and skills required.
Other countries are doing this on a nation-wide basis for both the public and private sectors in seeking to legislate equal pay for work of equal value.
Women and Migration
Women make up more than 50% of all new immigrants to countries and their migration patterns and effects on home and
host countries differ from those of male migrants. International migration can contribute to economic growth in countries by alleviating labour shortages caused by declining fertility rates. At the same time, migration can contribute to development in sending countries through remittances and repatriation of skilled migrants. However, labour and social policies in home
and host countries need a gender perspective to realize fully the positive benefits of migration for both women and men and those who are left behind.
The reasons and modes of entry of female migrants differ from those of men. Overall, family migration accounts for the majority of permanent-type immigration flows to countries, although there are increasing flows of migrants seeking employment. Humanitarian migration (leaving the country of birth due to war or persecution) accounts for a small and
declining percentage. Most women migrate for family reasons to form or reunify families. Migrant women often enter countries as wives and dependents of men who sponsor their admission, and they are less likely than men to migrate on economic or humanitarian grounds.
However, more women are now migrating independently for employment instead of following male relatives. These women as well as those who enter for family reasons tend to have greater difficulties than men in finding income-generating opportunities. The employment rate of immigrant women in countries is far lower than that of their male counterparts and also lower than that of native-born women.
Women immigrants often confront two-fold discrimination in being foreign and female constituting what is termed a “double disadvantage”. Migrant women face a gender-stratified labour market where they find themselves at the low-skill rather than high-skill end. Low-skilled or unskilled migrant women tend to find jobs in a limited number of occupations associated with gendered roles such as cleaning and catering services and domestic work. There has been a large increase in immigrant women in the domestic services sector in countries due in part to the growing need for household help (including child care), following the increasing participation of women nationals in the labour force. This is also a result of higher demand for assistance to the elderly due to ageing populations.
In contrast, male migrants classified as unskilled are found in construction, agriculture, and manufacturing, occupations which are often more visible and tend to be more regulated. The marginality of unskilled immigrant women is reflected not only in lower labour force participation and low status jobs, but also in low earnings and poor working conditions.
Since many lack union representation, they endure low wages, long working hours and insecure contracts often coupled with precarious legal status. Males make up most of the high-skilled category of labour migrants, particularly doctors, scientists, engineers and ICT experts. However, on average, women make up 47% of employed professional and technical migrants in countries. Women from developing countries with university degrees are also more likely to emigrate to countries than highly-skilled men. Skilled migrant women often go into welfare and social professions including education and health care.
Immigrant women fill a critical shortage of nurses in countries.
The emigration of women, both skilled and unskilled, can be damaging to growth in sending countries given the key role played by women in poverty reduction. Migration of women from low-income countries deprives them of their chief care-givers and labour for the informal economy. The negative impacts are even more pronounced in the brain-drain of highskilled women. Macro-economic studies show that emigration of women with tertiary education adversely affects infant mortality, under-five mortality, and secondary school enrolment rates in developing countries.
The main positive contribution of female migration to developing countries is the money which they earn and send back home. Low-skilled migrants, particularly women, tend to send more money home than highskilled migrants of both sexes.
Temporary unskilled migration, where women are largely concentrated, results in higher flows of remittances even though women earn less than the average male migrant. Women are also the greatest recipients of remittances and tend to use these
funds to improve the welfare of family members. Remittances to developing countries finance purchases of consumer goods, housing and health and education and can facilitate small enterprises and community investments. They can also be a vehicle for changing gender relations winning respect for women who remit and providing more resources to women who receive
Greater gender awareness with regard to migration flows not only benefits women migrants but also increases overall economic and social gains. The sustainability of migration policies over the long-term depends on whether they enable women as well as men to realize employment and social opportunities which benefit both receiving and sending countries.
Migrants are filling labour shortages in high-technology, health-care and other fields in countries and assist in offsetting the adverse consequences of ageing populations. In addition, migrants contribute to the development of their countries of origin through remittances and skills acquisition.
While all migrants need to be better integrated into the labour markets and societies of receiving countries, more attention should be paid to the situation of women. Immigration policies often give greater rights and possibilities of regular migration to those taking up jobs usually done by men. The “guest worker” model of migration, which allows people in for limited periods to fill skills gaps in the labour market, is directed to males, particularly those without spouses or families. But this approach has been generally unsuccessful, leading governments to seek better distinctions between temporary and (potentially) permanent migration for both men and women.
In addition to ensuring access to basic services such as housing, education and health care, female migrants need information on their legal rights and protection against discriminatory hiring practices. Migration can provide new opportunities to improve women’s lives and change gender relations which may have been discriminatory in their home countries.
Institutions and migration policies in receiving countries should support the rights of women and their integration. This includes maintaining regular channels for women’s entry to avoid pushing them into more risky modes. Training and incentives for employers can promote the better assessment and use of the skills and qualifications of male and female
immigrants. Migrant women tend to experience downward mobility by engaging in jobs that are beneath their educational
qualifications. Demand structures reinforced by accreditation criteria explain the dominance of men in certain migration streams. Systems for the accreditation and recognition of migrant skills should not restrict access by female migrants to various trades and professions. Studies have found, for example, that 88% of green card permits in Germany went to men, including scientists from Eastern Europe which has an equal number of women in the profession (Piper, 2005).
Given the growing importance of females in sending and receiving remittances, countries should assure they have equitable access to financial services and take steps to lower the costs of financial transfers through banks and financial institutions. Financial systems in countries often make it difficult for migrants, particularly women, to send and receive remittances and charge high fees for these services. For example, banks may require approval from a male family member before allowing women to open bank accounts, obtain credit or transmit remittances. Joint migration policies, elaborated through collaboration between receiving and sending countries, could ease financial transfers and enhance economic development in sending countries.
Women and Sustainable Production
International trade and investment have led to the globalization of production where goods are made up of many component parts produced, assembled and shipped in different parts of the world. The sustainability of globalised production has become of increasing concern in terms of the environmental and social practices of multinational enterprises and their
supply chains. Of particular interest are the ecological impacts of production processes in manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry and other sectors through contributions to climate change, deforestation, overfishing and loss of biodiversity.
The social practices of firms, including the health and safety of employees, labour representation, sustainable livelihoods, community contributions, and increasingly gender impacts are also under the spotlight. Trade liberalization and foreign investment have created jobs and spurred economic growth in both developed and developing countries. This has been accompanied by changes in the international structure of industry and the male-female composition of the workforce in different sectors and regions.
In countries, the manufacturing sector has contracted and jobs in service sectors such as sales, finance and communications have expanded. At the same time, mass production of goods including electronics, automobiles, household appliances and toys has shifted. The environmental consequences of this shift are a continuing issue and are coupled with the social implications for working men and women.
Women are increasingly visible in export-oriented sectors in middleincome developing countries, where they comprise up to 90% of workers. Females now tend to dominate in low-skill, labour-intensive jobs in textiles, clothing, pharmaceuticals, household goods and toy production in countries. Much of this employment is located in export processing zones, which account for between 33% and 88% of production and exports depending on the sector. In 2005, it was estimated that there were 50 million jobs in export processing zones worldwide and that 80% of these were held by women.
While the advent of light manufacturing jobs in developing countries has brought employment to women workers, it has not led to higher wages or better working conditions. The lack of labour representation results in little social protection. In countries such as India, women represent 96% of workers not represented by unions (ETI, 2003). Wages remain significantly lower than in other manufacturing sectors where the majority of workers are men. In comparable jobs, women’s earnings represent about 73% of men’s earnings. Less than 20% of this gender wage gap can be explained by male female
differences in education and work experience or by the types or characteristics of their jobs (World Bank, 2001).
The situation is comparable in export-oriented agricultural sectors such as food-processing and horticulture, where women also make up the majority of workers in many countries. Because jobs are not adequately remunerated and lack full labour rights, women are deprived of opportunities to improve their livelihood and status.
Other deficiencies include long and irregular working hours which are destructive to family life, lack of health benefits and maternity leave, poor health and safety conditions, and lack of union representation or legal employment contracts (WWW, 2008). The result is female working poverty, the profits of which are reaped by actors further up the supply chain.
As production and sourcing take place on an increasingly global scale, the environmental and social dimensions of products are largely invisible to consumers. There are a growing number of codes of conduct and guidelines for promoting the sustainability of company values, practices and production processes to which more and more multinationals ascribe.
However, corporate responsibility for the ecological and workplace conditions of their smaller suppliers and contractors along the global supply chain is still a vague area.
Governments can promote sustainable corporate production through support to reporting systems and international instruments. More companies are now publishing corporate reports to inform consumers of their environmental and social values and practices at home and abroad. As interest in the social and ethical aspects of production grows, gender discrimination in employment practices is also rising on the radar screen. Corporations which neglect environmental
impacts are also more likely to give scant attention to the social dimensions of their workplaces (WWW, 2008).
More large companies are providing information in connection with global sustainability instruments and codes of conduct, Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the UN Global Compact, and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). These are comprehensive frameworks which cover environment, social and corporate governance issues.
More than half of the world’s largest companies now provide reports on environmental, social and ethical performance. In some countries. In Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Norway, corporate sustainability reporting is a legal obligation, mostly linked to annual financial reports. Other countries require sustainability reporting from certain sectors, actively encourage information disclosure, and/or provide certification and verification services for companies of their
environmental and social practices. But in most countries, sustainability reporting is voluntary and reporting and compliance vary widely across sectors and companies. While the top-down approach to promoting sustainable production is gaining ground, the lower reaches remain neglected with controversial and embarrassing results for larger multinationals.
Companies should be made responsible for the production impacts of their suppliers, including the environmental, safety
and health, and worker rights dimensions. More international codes of conduct should include reporting and monitoring on how a company’s product range supports sustainable production all along the global supply chain.
Women and Climate Change
Gender is a significant aspect to be taken into account when considering actions both to adapt to and mitigate climate change. Climate change impacts are not only physical and economic, but also social and cultural. Because of gender differences in social and economic roles and responsibilities, the effects of climate change affect men and women in varied ways, and often women more severely. At the same time, women generally advocate a wider set of actions than men for addressing climate change.
Women tend to be affected differently, and more harshly, by climate change because of their social roles and more impoverished status. In developed countries, women are among the most vulnerable groups owing to a reduced ability to access finance, technology and information needed to adapt to climate change impacts. In the case of Hurricane Katrina in the United States, for example, those who were hardest hit and had the least ability to recover included women, who represent the majority of the poor. Increased costs for energy, transportation, health-care, and food caused by the disrupting effects of climate change disproportionately affect women, especially single mothers.
In poorer countries, climate change can adversely affect crop yields and thus the livelihoods and food security of women who are largely responsible for food production as well as family nutrition. Supplying water and fuel for families, which is typically the responsibility of women, becomes more difficult as environmental changes negatively affect clean water supply, existing infrastructure, and urban and rural settlements. Coping with the damage of extreme weather events such as storms, floods, and cyclones may also fall more on women who hold together families and households.
Climate change can lead to shortages of resources and unreliable job markets, causing male emigration in the search for work and increasing the agricultural and household duties of women. Women and children are far more likely to die than men during extreme weather events linked to climate change owing to their greater vulnerability (Mirza, 2003). In the 2004 Asian tsunami, 70%-80% of all deaths were women. In the 1991 cyclone disasters in Bangladesh, 90% of victims were
women. In Europe, more women than men died during the 2003 heat wave. Following Hurricane Katrina, African-American women, who were the poorest population, faced the greatest obstacles to survival.
For mitigating climate change, women propose more comprehensive approaches to those advocated by men, but they have less power and influence to affect public policy. Women tend to focus more on lifestyle and social changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including reducing the impact of unsustainable consumption and production patterns on the
environment and promoting actions such as energy-saving and greener purchasing. Women have greater doubts than men that technological solutions alone will solve the problem of global warming and support initiatives to induce changes in personal behaviour.
Surveys in the United Kingdom find that 75% of the women surveyed are apprehensive that actions they consider effective to mitigate climate change will not be adopted soon enough. In addition, 97% of women surveyed do not think the government is doing enough to combat climate change, and 80% fault the lack of female involvement in environmental
policy-making (WEN, 2007). Similarly, in Germany, more than 50% of women compared to 40% of men rate climate change as extremely or very dangerous. Far more than the men surveyed, women tend to believe that individuals can contribute toward protecting the climate through their actions and lifestyle changes (GenaNet, 2007).
As stated in Principle 20 of the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, “women have a vital role in environmental management and development … and are therefore essential to achieve sustainable development.” The role of women in confronting and adapting to climate change should be increased in order to draw on a wider range of mitigation
actions and better targeting of adaptation strategies. The present lack of women’s participation in most policy-making signals a gap in the resources devoted to the climate challenge. More balanced and effective approaches could be developed if international climate change negotiation processes as well as national climate policies considered gender aspects.
By increasing the female presence in climate decision-making, holistic solutions to mitigate adverse effects would be given greater weight. Because men dominate in areas related to energy, transportation, and industry, the focus of climate policies tends to be more technological than behavioral. Many of the technological changes and instruments now proposed may not
be gender-neutral and may negatively affect women or bypass their role completely. For example, if transport policies were geared more to women, less emphasis would be placed on funding road systems and modifying automobiles and more on user-friendly and climate-friendly transportation systems.
Women, whose carbon footprint is smaller than that of men, should play a larger role in confronting climate change since they make the majority of consumption decisions for households. From the female perspective, public policies should be oriented, inter alia, to the carbon-labelling of goods, lower taxes on climate-friendly products, and government grants and
incentives for more efficient heating and energy systems. Women also advocate higher investments in renewable energy, more climate-friendly manufacturing processes, and tougher carbon reduction targets (WEN, 2007).
As the primary caregivers and educators of the next generation, women give greater emphasis to the role of communications and education in mitigating climate change. They play a critical role in bringing about changes in attitudes and encouraging the adoption of greener lifestyles and climate-friendly values by their children. More education about climate change, its causes and ways to avoid it for all age groups is among the steps they advocate. Women themselves would like to know more about the science and technology of climate change, indicating a role for better training in this area.
In poorer countries, the female role in helping communities adapt to the adverse effects of climate change should be factored into development assistance policies and climate change strategies. In their function as household managers, women could be more productively involved in producing renewable and sustainable energy for heating and cooking (Energia, 2007). As a result of their land-based work and knowledge of natural resources, women represent an untapped asset in coping with the
effects of climate change on livelihoods and providing relief in the event of natural disasters (UNEP, 2004). Technology transfer and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects could be designed in a gender sensitive way to promote the dual purpose of climate protection and enhancing the role of women.
OLUKUNLE BENJAMIN OLUWOLE
CEO / PRESIDENT
OLUKUNLE OLUWOLE FOUNDATION
You asked how the law defines truancy and who is responsible for enforcing school attendance laws when parents fail to send young children to school.
A school-aged child is considered truant if, having been enrolled in school, he is absent without a proper excuse four or more times in one month or 10 or more times in one school year. By law, children are considered to be of school age if they are between the ages of five and 16 (18 starting on July 1, 2001). The attendance laws contain certain exceptions for children between five and seven and between 16 and 18 and for children whose parents provide equivalent instruction outside of school.
Depending on the circumstances, different officials are responsible for enforcing truancy laws. Local boards of education are required to monitor unexcused absences and have policies and procedures for dealing with truancy. Boards must turn to the Superior Court for help when a student's parent or guardian refuses to cooperate. Boards can hire attendance officers to investigate student absences and present violations to prosecutors. Finally, local police have authority to check to see whether school aged children are truant and, if they are, to send them to school. Police can also arrest habitual truants.
DEFINITION OF TRUANT
Current law defines a “truant” as a child between the ages of five and 16 who is enrolled in a public or private school and has four unexcused school absences in a month or 10 in any school year (CGS § 10-198a(a). A “habitual truant” is a child between the ages of five and 16 who has 20 unexcused absences from school during a school year (§ 10-200). Effective July 1, 2001, these definitions will apply to children between the ages of five and 18, unless, when a child turns 16, he has his parents' consent to drop out of school or unless he has graduated from high school (PA 00-157).
By law, local and regional boards of education, local police, and courts are responsible for enforcing the mandatory school attendance laws when parents fail to send their children to school or provide them with equivalent instruction. Their responsibilities vary depending on the situation.
Boards of Education
The law requires each local board of education to adopt and implement policies and procedures to deal with truants enrolled in their schools. Boards must monitor individual unexcused absences of children in grades K-8 and make a reasonable effort to notify the student's parent or person having control over him when the child is absent. They must also, within 10 days of the student's fourth unexcused absence in a month or 10th in a school year, hold a meeting with the students' parents to discuss the situation. If a parent fails to attend the meeting or fails to cooperate with the school in addressing the problem, the superintendent of schools must file a written complaint with the Superior Court alleging the child's family is a “family with service needs” (§ 10-198a).
By law, a “family with service needs” (FWSN) is, among other things, one that includes a child up to age 16 who is habitually truant or overtly defiant of school rules and regulations. School and town officials, the police, social service agencies, and other parties can file a complaint with the Superior Court alleging that a child's family is a FWSN. The court must refer such complaints to a probation officer for investigation.
If the court finds that the child's family is a FWSN, it can (1) refer the child to the Department of Children and Families (DCF) or a school district, (2) commit him to DCF for up to 18 months (with a possible 18-month extension), or (3) order him to remain at home under probation or school supervision (§ 46b-149).
In addition to requiring boards of education to use the FWSN process, state law also allows a board to appoint attendance officers. Attendance officers operate under the direction of school principals or superintendents. They must investigate pupils' absences or irregular attendance and present violations of school attendance laws to prosecutors (§ 10-199).
State law allows local law enforcement officers to stop any child under age 16 during school hours to determine whether the child is truant and, if he is, to send him to school. The law also requires law enforcement officers to arrest habitual truants who are beyond control of their parents during school hours (§ 10-200). Police officers who arrest truants must do so only on the basis of a warrant issued by a judge (§ 10-202).
Through history there have been many secret societies and conspiracy theories about those societies. This is a list of 10 of the most famous and popular secret societies or alleged secret societies.
1. Skull and Bones; Members of the Skull and Bones (George Bush is left of the clock) 
The Order of Skull and Bones, a Yale University society, was originally known as the Brotherhood of Death. It is one of the oldest student secret societies in the United States. It was founded in 1832 and membership is open to an elite few. The society uses masonic inspired rituals to this day. Members meet every Thursday and Sunday of each week in a building they call the “Tomb”.
According to Judy Schiff, Chief Archivist at the Yale University Library, the names of the members were not kept secret until the 1970s, but the rituals always have been. Both of the Bush presidents were members of the society while studying at Yale, and a number of other members have gone on to great fame and fortune.
The society is surrounded by conspiracy theories; the most popular of which is probably the idea that the CIA was built on members from the group. The CIA released a statement in 2007 (coinciding with the popularity of the film The Good Shepherd) in which it denied that the group was an incubator for the CIA
2. Freemasons; Freemasons Annual Meeting 
The Grand Masonic Lodge was created in 1717 when four small groups of lodges joined together. Membership levels were initially first and second degree, but in the 1750s this was expanded to create the third degree which caused a split in the group. When a person reaches the third degree, they are called a Master Mason.
Masons conduct their regular meetings in a ritualized style. This includes many references to architectural symbols such as the compass and square. They refer to God as “The Great Architect of the Universe”. The three degrees of Masonry are: 1: Entered Apprentice, this makes you a basic member of the group. 2: Fellow Craft, this is an intermediate degree in which you are meant to develop further knowledge of Masonry. 3: Master Mason, this degree is necessary for participating in most masonic activities. Some rites (such as the Scottish rite) list up to 33 degrees of membership.
Masons use signs and handshakes to gain admission to their meetings, as well as to identify themselves to other people who may be Masons. The signs and handshakes often differ from one jurisdiction to another and are often changed or updated. This protects the group from people finding out how to gain admission under false pretenses. Masons also wear stylized clothing based upon the clothing worn by stone masons from the middle ages. The most well known of these is the apron.
In order to become a Mason, you must generally be recommended by a current mason. In some cases you must be recommended three times before you can join. You have to be at least 18 years old and of sound mind. Many religions frown upon membership of the Masons, and the Roman Catholic Church forbids Catholics to join under pain of excommunication.
3. Rosicrucians; Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians
10. Opus Dei; Ordination of Opus Dei Priests
Opus Dei is an organization of the Catholic Church that emphasizes the Catholic belief that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity. The celibate numeraries and numerary assistants live in special centers, while associates are celibate members living in their private homes. The order was founded in Spain in 1928 by Roman Catholic priest Josemaría Escrivá with the approval of Pope Pius XII.
When Dan Brown’s Da Vinci Code was published, it claimed that Opus Dei was a secret organization within the Church whose aim was to defeat the Priory of Sion and those who seek to uncover the “truth” about Christianity and the alleged royal bloodline of Christ. Outside of the book, there has been a great deal of controversy over Opus Dei because of the strictness of its religious structure.
The Catholic Church forbids secret societies and membership in them, and Opus Dei investigators have frequently debunked claims that this organization is acting in secrecy to further a sinister agenda.
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The Rosicrucian order is generally believed to have been the idea of a group of German protestants in the 1600s when a series of three documents were published: Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis, Confessio Fraternitatis, and The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz anno 1459. The documents were so widely read and influential, that the historian Frances Yeats refers to the 17th century as the Rosicrucian Enlightenment. The first document tells the story of a mysterious alchemist (Christian Rosenkreuz) who travelled to various parts of the world gathering secret knowledge. The second document tells of a secret brotherhood of alchemists who were preparing to change the political and intellectual face of Europe. The third document describes the invitation of Christian Rosenkreuz to attend and assist at the “Chemical” wedding of a King and Queen in a castle of Miracles.
Current members of the Rosicrucian Order claim that its origins are far more ancient than these documents. The authors of the documents seemed to strongly favor Lutheranism and include condemnations of the Catholic Church. Rosicrucianism probably had an influence on Masonry and, in fact, the 18th degree of Scottish Rite Masonry is called the Knight of the Rose Croix (red cross).
There are a large number of Rosicrucian groups today – each claiming to be closely tied to the original. Of the two main divisions, one is a mix of Christianity with Rosicrucian principles, and the other is semi-Masonic. The Masonic type tend to also have degrees of membership.
4. Ordo Templis Orientis; Crowley with OTO Instruments
The OTO (Order of the Temples of the East) is an organization that was originally modeled on Masonry but, under the leadership of the self-styled “Great Beast” Aleister Crowley, it took on the principles of his religious system called Thelema. Thelema is based around a single law: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law, love is the law, love under the will” . Membership is based upon degrees of initiation and highly stylized rituals are used. The OTO currently claims over 3,000 members worldwide.
Crowley created a “Mass” for the OTO which is called the Gnostic Mass. Of the “Mass”, Crowley wrote:
“I resolved that my Ritual should celebrate the sublimity of the operation of universal forces without introducing disputable metaphysical theories. I would neither make nor imply any statement about nature which would not be endorsed by the most materialistic man of science. On the surface this may sound difficult; but in practice I found it perfectly simple to combine the most rigidly rational conceptions of phenomena with the most exalted and enthusiastic celebration of their sublimity.”
The ritual is very stylized and uses virgin priestesses, children, and priests. Many Ancient Egyptian God’s are invoked, as well as the Devil, and at one point the priestess performs a naked ritual.
5. Hermetic Order of The Golden Dawn; Golden Dawn Symbolism
The order of the Golden Dawn was created by Dr. William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott, and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers. All three were Freemasons and members of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (an organization with ties to Masonry). It is considered by many to be a forerunner of the Ordo Templi Orientis and a majority of modern Occult groups.
The belief system of the Golden Dawn is largely taken from Christian mysticism, Qabalah, Hermeticism, the religion of Ancient Egypt, Freemasonry, Alchemy, Theosophy, Magic, and Renaissance writings. William Yeats, and Aleister Crowly are two of the more famous members of the group.
The fundamental documents of the order are known as the Cipher Documents. These were translated into English using a cipher attributed to Johannes Trithemius. The documents are a series of 60 folios containing magic rituals. The basic structure of many of these rituals appear to originate with Rosicrucianism. There is a great deal of controversy surrounding the origins of these documents.
6. The Knights Templar; Mediaeval Templar’s Sword. The Knights Templar (full name: The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta) is a modern off-shoot of Masonry and does not have a direct tie to the original Knights Templar – a religious military group formed in the 12th century. Members of the Masonic Knights Templar do not claim a direct connection to the medieval group, but merely a borrowing of ideas and symbols.
In order to become a member of this group, you must already be a Christian Master Mason. This organization is a distinct one, and is not just a higher degree of Masonry. Despite Freemasonry’s general disclaimer that no one Masonic organization claims a direct heritage to the medieval Knights Templar, certain degrees and orders are obviously patterned after the medieval Order. These are best described as “commemorative orders” or degrees. Nevertheless, in spite of the fraternity’s official disclaimers, some Masons, non-Masons, and even anti-Masons insist that certain Masonic rites or degrees originally had direct Templar influence.
7. The Illuminati; The Pyramid, an illuminati symbol. A movement of freethinkers that were the most radical offshoot of The Enlightenment — whose followers were given the name Illuminati (but who called themselves “Perfectibilists”) — was founded on May 1, 1776 in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria), by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt. This group is now known as the Bavarian Illuminati. While it was not legally allowed to operate, many influential intellectuals and progressive politicians counted themselves as members. Even though there were some known Freemasons in the membership, it was not considered to be endorsed by Masonry. The fact that the Illuminati did not require a belief in a supreme being made them particularly popular amongst atheists. This, and the fact that most members were humanists, is the reason for the widespread belief that the Illuminati wants to overthrow organized religion.
Internal panic over the succession of a new leader, and government attempts to outlaw the group saw to it collapsing entirely in the late 1700s. Despite this, conspiracy theorists such as David Icke and Was Penre, have argued that the Bavarian Illuminati survived, possibly to this day, though very little reliable evidence can be found to support the idea that Weishaupt’s group survived into the 19th century. It has even been suggested that the Skull and Bones club is an American branch of the Illuminati.
Many people believe that the Illuminati is still operating and managing the main actions of the governments of the world. It is believed that they wish to create a One World Government based on humanist and atheist principles.
8. The Bilderberg Group; A Bilderberg Meeting
This group is slightly different from the others in that it does not have an official membership. It is the name given to a group of highly influential people who meet ever year in secrecy (and usually with strong military and government sponsored security). The topics discussed are kept secret. The structure of the meetings is that of a conference – usually held in five star hotels around the world. Attendance at the meeting is strictly by invitation only. The first meeting took place in 1954 at the Hotel Bilderberg in the Netherlands.
The original meeting was initiated by several people. Polish emigre and political adviser, Joseph Retinger, concerned about the growth of anti-Americanism in Western Europe, proposed an international conference at which leaders from European countries and the United States would be brought together with the aim of promoting understanding between the cultures of The United States of America and Western Europe.
Although the agenda and list of participants are openly available to the public, it is not clear that such details are disclosed by the group itself. Also, the contents of the meetings are kept secret and attendees pledge not to divulge what was discussed. The group’s stated justification for secrecy is that it enables people to speak freely without the need to carefully consider how every word might be interpreted by the mass media.
Needless to say, this group is constantly surrounded by controversy and conspiracy theories.
9. The Priory of Sion; Logo of the Priori of Sion
After the publication of the Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown, a great deal of interest in the Priory of Sion has been created. Unfortunately for those hoping to find and join the Priory, it is, in fact, fictional. It was a hoax created in 1956 by a pretender to the French Throne, Pierre Plantard. Letters in existence dating from the 1960s written by Plantard, de Cherisey and de Sède to each other confirm that the three were engaging in an out-and-out confidence trick, describing schemes on how to combat criticisms of their various allegations and how they would make up new allegations to try to keep the whole thing going. Despite this, many people still continue to believe that the Priory exists and functions to this day.
The authors of the well known book, The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, misled by the hoax, stated:
1. The Priory of Sion has a long history starting in AD 1099, and had illustrious Grand Masters including Isaac Newton and Leonardo da Vinci.
2. The order protects certain royal claimants because they believe them to be the literal descendants of Jesus and his alleged wife Mary Magdalene or, at the very least, of king David.
3. The priory seeks the founding of a “Holy European Empire” that would become the next hyperpower and usher in a new world order of peace and prosperity.
Enlightenment is about seeing through the illusions of life and knowing what reality really is. When you are enlightened, you can have everything you want. Because you’ll know the truth about what everything is, and what does it really mean to have something.
It is an irony of the world that the people who seek material things and desire to have them before thinking about enlightenment, tend to attain neither, but those that acquire enlightenment first are the ones who do. The desire less attain all their desires.
Being desireless is not about having no desire, but it is about having no attachment to desire. Attachment is the cause of all suffering. Suffering is burning emotional energy on the uncontrollable.The more you suffer, the more suffering you attract.
Letting go of all attachments is the way to end all suffering.
When you are attached, you are in a state of wanting or lacking. When you are detached, you are in a state of being desireless. Enlightenment is about knowing why detachment gets you your desire.
Physical reality is an illusion created by consciousness to rediscover itself. It is an illusion that you do not have what you already want, because you already have all that you desire in spiritual reality. Physical reality is a place for you to manifest anything that you are resonating with from spiritual reality. When you are attached, you are resonating with the spiritual untruth that you do not have your desire.
When you are detached, you are resonating with the spiritual truth that you already have your desire. You free yourself by being emotionally detached from choices. Many people fail to get what they want because they do not free themselves to have it.
You trap yourself when you are attached to choices. You think that it has to work a particular way rather than allowing yourself to go another way. Detachment from choices is what gives you true freedom of choice. You are able to choose again in every moment and are free to make a different choice if you will.
Detachment from choice is secret of flexibility.
Stock market trading success comes to those who trade in an enlightened way. The masses are emotionally attached to choices and that is why they lose money when they hold on to failing stocks instead of selling them. They also fail to sell when the stock has reached a substantial level of growth because they are attached to seeing it grow forever.
The elite traders are not attached to choices but they buy and sell freely in a way that makes them more money than losing it. To be unattached is to be free.
Having the relationships you want also comes from being enlightened. What a woman really wants is an enlightened man. He is a man who realizes his true being as a free spirit. He is free to express himself to her and he is free from being affected by her.
Being detached is the attractive quality that makes a man uncontrollable by a lady. Being undefined by external factors is what makes him self assured. He is capable of loving fearlessly and loving without attachment. Enlightened loving is loving like a god.
Those who are enlightened get what they want by benefiting from movement and changes, whether positive or negative. It no longer matters to them whether the stock goes up or down. They have strategies to make money either way. It no longer matters to them whether which person likes or don’t like them, or when their partner is happy or unhappy with them. They simply allow themselves to enjoy all the happiness and positive energy they experience from whoever, whenever and however it comes.
Enlightened manifestation of your desires is about getting the essence of what you want and not being attached to the form or channel. Those who are attached to form or channel will suffer more and more, and have less and less self esteem. Whereas those who are not attached will be able to enjoy more and more of the things they like in life, and have more and more self esteem.
Those who have more self esteem are more capable of having the success and relationships they want compared to the others.
Freedom from attachment is also the reason why the rich get richer and the happy
get happier, while the poor get poorer and the unhappy get unhappier. Having comes from being. When you are being detached, you are resonating with having. When you are being attached, you are resonating with not having.
That is why it has always been said that you will finally be able to have what you want when you no longer want it. It does not mean you do not want it, but you are no longer in a state of wanting it.
All that we want is peace and bliss. We think that when we have all the material things we want, we will have peace and bliss. But that is because we don’t really know what peace and bliss are. It is peace and bliss that bring us everything else in life.
Peace is total transcendence. Bliss is an untouchable happiness. When we transcend all illusions of the material world, we are in a state of peace where we can manifest anything we want. When we have no attachments, we have a happiness that cannot go.
Enlightenment is the key to everything. The unenlightened may ask what enlightenment has got to do with making the money or getting the girl that you want. The answer is everything. When you are enlightened, you realize that it is not about getting this or that, but it is all about knowing what reality is, and who you really are. Then from that space of knowingness and beingness, you are free to create whatever you wish.
You’re free to play with illusions without being trapped by any, as it is all just a game. Obobanj +447024077633
What is the legal status of a child born outside of marriage?
A child is the child of his or her biological parents. There is no difference in law in the status of a child born to someone who is legally married, to a single mother, to a person in a common-law relationship, or to a couple in a same-sex relationship or an opposite-sex relationship. A child born outside marriage is treated in the same way as a child born inside marriage.
How is the birth registered when a child is born outside of marriage?
BC’s Vital Statistics Act requires that a child born in BC must be registered with the government by filing a Registration of Live Birth within 30 days after the birth. The Act requires both parents to sign this form, unless one or both is incapable. If the father is unknown or doesn’t acknowledge that he is the father, the child’s mother can sign the birth registration alone.
How is the child’s last name chosen?
The parents may choose any last name they like, if they agree. Otherwise, the child’s last name will be a hyphenated combination of both surnames in alphabetical order. If only the mother signs the birth registration, she can choose the last name.
Can the child’s birth certificate be changed later to show the father?
If both parents agree, they can amend the birth registration to list the father and, if they want, to change the child’s name. If they don’t agree, the father may apply to court to establish the child’s parentage and ask for a change in the child’s last name.
Before making name changes, however, the court must consider the change to be in the best interests of the child. The court must also consider the wishes of any child over age seven, and children over 12 must consent to the change in last name. If these conditions are satisfied, the court may order the last name to be the last name of either parent or a hyphenated combination of their last names.
Does the father have to consent to the adoption of his child?
Say an unwed mother wants her child to be adopted by another family. In this case, BC’s Adoption Act says that the consent of the biological father is usually required. The father must be notified about the proposed adoption, unless the court rules that it’s not in the child’s best interests or the circumstances justify not giving the father notification. There is also a Birth Father Registry that acts to protect fathers’ rights. When a birth father places his name on the registry, it allows him to receive written notice of a proposed placement and potentially object to the adoption.
Does an unwed mother automatically get custody of her child?
No. Unless there’s an agreement or court order, the Family Relations Act governs the legal authority over children of unmarried parents. But to understand what the Act says, you need to understand what “guardianship” means.
Guardianship is about parenting
Guardianship of a child is the right to make parenting decisions for the child (for example about schooling, religious instruction or health care) and the right to get information from the important people in the child’s life (for example teachers, doctors and counsellors). This is called having guardianship of the “person” of a child. Guardianship of the “estate” of a child is the right to make decisions about the control and use of property belonging to a child.
The type of guardianship unmarried parents have without a court order or a written agreement about guardianship depends on their relationship with each other:
If the parents still live together, they both have guardianship over the child’s person and estate.
If the parents used to live together but are now separated, they both have guardianship over the child’s estate, but only the parent who lives with the child has guardianship over the child’s person.
If the parents never lived together, the parent who lives with the child has sole guardianship of the child’s person and estate.
Although it is parents who are presumed to have guardianship of their children, any person may apply for guardianship of a child, including step-parents and grandparents.
Custody means much the same thing a guardianship and includes the right to have the child with you. One parent can have custody (called sole custody) or both parents can have custody (called joint custody). However, having sole custody does not mean that the other parent can’t see the child, and having joint custody doesn’t necessarily mean that the child’s time is equally divided between the parents.
The type of custody unmarried parents have without a court order or a written agreement about custody depends on their relationship with each other:
If the parents live together, they both have custody of the child.
If the parents don’t live together, the parent with whom the child usually lives has sole custody.
Although it is parents who are presumed to have custody of their children, any person may apply for custody of a child, including step-parents and grandparents.
How does the court decide custody and guardianship?
The court considers the child’s best interests. Custody and guardianship of a child of unmarried parents is decided in the same way as when married parents separate. The court can order joint custody or sole custody to either parent. Where the child spends equal time with both parents, the parents would likely have joint custody. But joint custody may also be given where the child lives primarily with one parent, if the mother and father can show that they are both good parents and have a certain minimum ability to parent together. For more information on child custody,.
Can you get child support for a child born outside marriage?
Child support is a right of the child not the parent, and each parent is legally responsible for the financial support of their children, whether the parents are married to each other or not.
What are the inheritance rights of children born outside of marriage?
The rights depend on whether or not the parent made a will and on the child’s relationship to that parent:
If a person makes a will leaving all or part of their estate to “my children,” this means all their biological or adopted children. Any child born outside of marriage would be treated the same as a child born within marriage. However, step-children or children who have been adopted by someone else would not be included.
If a parent makes a will and treats any biological children (whether born inside or outside marriage) and adopted children differently from each other, an application can be made to change the affected child’s share of the estate.
If a parent dies without leaving a will, then the Estate Administration Act dictates how the estate will be split among a surviving spouse and any children. A child born to unmarried parents will receive exactly the same share as a child born to married parents.
For more information on inheritance rights, CALL +2348057507268
The New World Order is a diabolical plan created by the financial elite in order to destroy the national sovereignty of the governments of the world through economic blackmail and world conflict with the goal of enslaving humankind in a One World Fascist Dictatorship / Government.
The agents of the New World Order have successfully taken control of the world's financial system. Our politicians have made it "legal" for the private banking corporations to control our money supply, stock market and ultimately our destiny. A famous quote "Money is the root of all evil" is fitting, but a better understanding comes when you ask the question "What is the root of all Money?". The private banking corporations control the printing press and print money for the cost of paper (usury) and use it to enslave the nations and people of the world in debt.
Our governments have become totally insolvent or bankrupt through the creation of this debt slavery. Our governments are now maxing out the NWO credit line to keep the game going. We, the people are the only resources keeping the system alive as we are deceitfully sold into slavery at birth to the financial market as property of the state. Our productive capacity or labor via the Income Tax is used as collateral for this debt slavery. Matrix-esque anyone?
Since the agents of the NWO control the economy, our governments are slaves to the economic system. The NWO uses this power to control the destiny of the nations. The power of this money to shape society is limitless. They use it to control who is elected as politicians, what stories our news outlets air and any other interests (unlimited) that can be bought in a capitalist and immoral society. Not only do they subvert our democracy and keep us misinformed, but they ultimately control the future of our nations through inflation, deflation, the availability of money and interest rates. The stock market crash has become a scientifically created event designed to steal the wealth of the people, further the indebtedness of the nations, and create the conditions necessary for worldwide conflict.
The agents of the NWO throughout the ages have created and manipulated conflicts between nations to further their agenda. They have funded both sides in every major war. They know better than anyone that there is no business more profitable than war since they have been using conflict to enslave the nations through massive debt. The current estimated cost of the Iraq war stands at 2.7 trillion ( 2,700,000,000,000 ) and counting at a time when the American people are witnessing the worst economic crisis of this age. It is time to ask yourself Who is the real enemy of the American people?
The "War on Terror" has been manufactured by the New World Order to finally realize their goal of total world domination. The agents of the New World Order have created a globalized economy in order to create financial dependencies between the nations. The crash of the American Dollar will be used as the Trojan Horse to destroy the globalized market and create the chaos and conditions required to usher in the New World Order. The crash of the world economies coupled with food shortages (famine) and World War III in the Middle East will be used to create the perfect crises out of which the New World Order will arise as the solution. The NWO modus operandi uses a simple Problem->Reaction->Solution process to gain control.
The agents of the NWO use their money, power and control to manufacture the crises. In reaction, the people cry out for help from the ravages of war, famine and despair. The agents of the NWO seize this opportunity to deceive and enslave the masses into their One World Fascist Dictatorship / Government. There is no clash of civilizations, East vs. West, Christian or Jew vs. Muslim, but instead propaganda and manufactured conflict to keep us in fear so we continue to play the game. We are all pawns in this game and until we realize this truth we will continue to be exploited by the agents of the New World Order for personal gain.
It is said that those who are ignorant to the lessons of history are doomed to repeat them. Will we allow the NWO to repeat history once again with another Great Depression and World War? Will we be fooled again by the propaganda and bread & circus shows meant to keep us distracted and divided? Will we continue in ignorance to believe the problems of this world amount to petty party politics, a left vs. right paradigm or a republican vs. democrat issue?
We must not let these evil sycophants succeed in their quest for world domination. The future of humanity and the entire world is at stake. We must set aside the things that divide us (politics, religion, race, nationality, pride, hubris) and stand united for truth, justice and freedom. Are you ready to do your part? Are you 100% committed to ending this reign of tyranny and despotism that is the New World Order?
It is time for all of us to stand up as one, undivided, and let our voices be heard. It is time for us to take action to create physical changes on the ground. We must act now to restore the power (control of our money supply and our governments) to the people where it belongs in order to guarantee justice and freedom today and for all future generations. The people are waking up to the truth and the Resistance is growing into a massive movement for change. Please do your part to help educate your friends and family to this evil plot and make the promise to always stand for truth, justice and freedom.
The New World Order Resistance is 100% committed and dedicated to dismantling the NWO in all it's forms and removing it's stranglehold on the nations and people of the world. As long as there remains a single person in this world who stands for liberty, rest assured, the resistance will continue to bring the battle to the enemy until we taste true freedom. Give us Liberty or give us Death.
Some people claim that the Jews are behind the Illuminati. Others claim that the Catholic Church is behind the Illuminati. Some claim that Mormons are behind the Illuminati. Many people claim that the Illuminati is a Freemasonry conspiracy. It is important not to identify any one group as behind responsible for the Illuminati. The goal of the Illuminati is a global government, aka, a New World Order. The truth is that each of these groups play a distinct role in Satan's plot to control the world. They each have their part in the New World Order.
It is wrong to bash the Jews as being behind the Illuminati. Certainly, the Rothschilds are Jewish and are the key family in the Illuminati; However, the Rockefellers are not Jewish and are equally involved. So the New World Order is neither Jewish nor Gentile. It is neither Catholic nor completely Freemason. Without a doubt, Freemasonry plays a major role in the occult plans of the Illuminati, but so also does Bohemian Grove, Skull and Bones and other occult groups who worship Lucifer.
In this article, I point out the prevalence of some different groups, including wealthy Jews in positions of high power; but don't make the mistake of thinking that any particular group is completely behind the New World Order. The average Jewish person has nothing to do with the evils of Freemasonry, which is based upon Jewish mysticism in the Kabbalah. But it is true that all of the mainstream news corporations in America and Hollywood are Jewish owned. Coincidence? You decide. We ought not be, I repeat, ought NOT, be anti-Semitic in any way, fashion or form. Romans 2:11 teaches that God is NO respecter of persons.
Illuminati are Hateful, Selfish, Godless, Anti-American
There are thousands of books and articles teaching about the Illuminati. Since it's all kept highly secret from the public's eye, we have much misinformation deliberately given to us to confuse us concerning these people. But we know they are evil. We know they control the major events of this world, including starting and financing both sides of every major war since the Revolutionary War. William Guy Car covers this in detail in PAWNS IN THE GAME. We know from their own statements, such as from President George H. Bush, that they intend to enslave the world's population under a Godless Global Totalitarian Communist Police State. It is sad that so many millions of men have died in needless wars started by the “Banksters” to satisfy their own greedy and selfish agendas. The War in Iraq is no different.
The Illuminati are committed to destroying America's sovereignty and Christian backbone. Few people realize that moral decay is a primary Communist agenda. It is not mere coincidence that the Walt Disney Corporation, who are subsidized by the U.S. government, are one of the biggest promoters of whorish clothing for teenage girls, sensual filming, demonic Rock 'N' Roll music, witchcraft, feminism, disobedience to parents, new Age philosophy, sexual filth and Homosexuality. Satan wants to destroy families! Titus 1:16, “They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.”
Most of our good paying jobs have been outsourced to foreign labor. Our nation's southern border has deliberately been left open for decades to welcome illegals. After they illegally enter our country, then our government takes our tax-dollars and actually supports them with free health-care, food stamps, free housing and free education. Yet, Americans are losing their homes because of the lack of jobs.
Many Americans are having nervous breakdowns, snapping, because of the pressures and insanity working within society today. There is little compassion in society today. A police officer can brutally murder someone and the court gives him a light sentenced because “his job was so stressful,” yet Americans everywhere have equally stressful jobs and no mercy is shown toward them when they commit the same crimes. American courts crucify fathers in divorce court, while the feminist agenda works relentlessly to make rebels out of women, which in turn divorce their husbands. Many American women have become imprudent, rebellious and viscous. Consequently, millions of American women, aged 20-25 are divorced with 2 or 3 children. Woe unto America!
We are now witnessing the militarization of America's police forces. Increasingly, local police are becoming hostile toward Americans due to Homeland Security brainwashing, which aims to demonize patriotic citizens as terrorists. It is treason against the American people. Hell will be hot enough for the evil people who are doing this. Increasingly, the State is targeting Christian families and are confiscating their children from the home; while demented homosexuals are viewed as normal parents and are legally allowed to adopt children. The wickedness of the American society is woeful. This is all part of the Communist subversion of the United States.
Many Illuminati members are elite Jews (which has nothing to do with Anti-Semitism). I love Jewish people, but I love Arabs just as much. God is NO respecter of persons (Romans 2:11). Jews are NO better than Gentiles (Romans 3:9). This is why the Jews hate the New Testament, because it gives equal ground to the Gentiles, which makes the Jews extremely jealous (Romans 11:11). Many of the names you've often heard from Hollywood are fake, hiding the actor's real Jewish name. This was done on purpose to prevent the American public from realizing just how “Jewish” Hollywood really is—the number one source of immoral, Communist, Anti-Christian, Anti-family, Anti-American, blasphemous, pedophile, sicko, brainwashing propaganda in existence. Here's one of their movies and Another One.
Here are a list of many Hollywood actors and their real Jewish names . . .
Joey Adams ............................. Joseph Abramowitz
Eddie Albert ............................ Eddie Heimberger
Woody Allen............................. Allen Konigsberg
Lauren Bacall .......................... Joan Perske
Jack Benny ............................. Benny Kubelsky
Milton Berle ........................... Milton Berlinger
Ernest Borgnine ......................... Effron Borgnine
George Burns ........................... Nathan Birnbaum
Joan Blondell........................... Rosebud Blustein
Joyce Brothers .......................... Joyce Bauer
Mel Brooks ............................. Melvin Kaminsky
Joey Bishop ............................ Joey Gottlieb
Charles Bronson ........................ Charles Buchinsky
Rona Barrett ............................ Rona Burnstein
Cyd Chrisse ............................. Tula Finklea
Tony Curtis ............................ Bernie Schwartz
(daughter is Jamie Lee Curtis)
Joan Crawford .......................... Lucille Le Sueur
Dyan Cannon ............................ Samile Friesen
Kirk Douglas ........................... Isadore Demsky
(son is Michael Douglas)
Bob Dylan ............................... Robert Zimmerman
Rodney Dangerfield ...................... Jacob Cohen
Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. ................. Douglas Ullman
Joel Grey .............................. Joel Katz
(father of Jennifer Grey)
Elliott Gould ........................... Elliott Goldstein
Zsa Zsa Gabor ........................... Sara Gabor
John Garfield .......................... Jules Garfinkle
Judy Garland ........................... Frances Gumm
Paulette Goddard ....................... Paulette Levy
Eydie Gorme............................. Edith Gormezano
Cary Grant ............................. Larry Leach
Lorne Green ............................. Chaim Leibowiz
Judy Holliday .......................... Judith Tuvin
Leslie Howard .......................... Leslie Stainer
Buddy Hackett .......................... Leonard Hacker
Jill St. John .......................... Jill Oppenheim
Danny Kaye.............................. David Kominsky
Alan King .............................. Irwin Kniberg
Larry King............................... Larry Zeiger
Tina Louise............................. Tina Blacker
Ann Landers.............................. Esther Friedman
(Abigail Van Buren is her sister.)
Dorothy Lamour ......................... Dorothy Kaumeyer
Miehael Landon ......................... Mike Orowitz
Steve Lawrence ......................... Sidney Leibowitz
Hal Linden.............................. Hal Lip****z
Jerry Lewis ............................ Joseph Levitch
Karl Maiden .............................Maiden Sekulovitch
Ethel Merman ........................... Ethel Zimmerman
Jan Murray ............................. Murray Janofsky
Walter Matthau ......................... Walter Matasschanskayasky
Lilly Palmer ........................... Maria Peiser
Jan Pierce.............................. Pincus Perelmuth
Roberta Peters...........................Roberta Peterman
Eleanor Parker.......................... Ellen Friedlob
Joan Rlvers .............................Joan Molinsky
Tony Randall ........................... Sidney Rosenberg
Edward G. Robinson ..................... Emanuel Goldenberg
Dinah Shore ............................ Fanny Rose
Shelly Winters ......................... Shirley Schrift
Gene Wilder............................. Jerome Silberman
Child sexual abuse involves persuading or forcing a child to take part in sexual activities, or encouraging a child to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.
Sexual abuse can be very difficult to identify. However, there are steps you can take to help keep a child safe from sexual abuse and to protect a child if you suspect, or discover, that they have been abused.
Child sexual abuse includes:
• sexual touching of any part of the body, clothed or unclothed, including using an object
• all penetrative sex, including penetration of the mouth with an object or part of the body
• encouraging a child to engage in sexual activity, including sexual acts with someone else, or making a child strip or masturbate
• intentionally engaging in sexual activity in front of a child or not taking proper measures to prevent a child being exposed to sexual activity by others
• meeting a child following sexual 'grooming', or preparation, with the intention of abusing them
• taking, making, permitting to take, distributing, showing or advertising indecent images of children
• paying for the sexual services of a child or encouraging them into prostitution or pornography
• showing a child images of sexual activity including photographs, videos or via webcams.
• Acts of child sexual abuse are committed by men, women, teenagers, and other children. Sex offenders are found in all areas of society and come from a variety of backgrounds. Significantly more men than women sexually abuse children; however, female sexual abuse is under reported and is sometimes not recognised as abuse.
• Contrary to the popular image, abusers usually seem quite normal to others; friends, relatives and co-workers often find it hard to believe that someone they know has abused children. They are more likely to be someone that the child knows, like a relative, family friend or person in a position of trust, rather than a stranger.
• If the abuser is another child or young person, the abused child may be very confused about their feelings and may rationalise, or be persuaded, that what is happening is ‘normal’. A child may not say anything because they think it is their fault, that no one will believe them, or that they will be teased or punished. The child may even care for an abusing adult – they will want the abuse to stop, but they may fear the adult will go to prison or that their family will break up.
• Very young children and disabled children are particularly vulnerable because they may not have the words or the ability to communicate what is happening to them to someone they trust.
• The causes of sexually abusive behaviour towards children are complex and not fully understood. As well as the abusers' sexual urges and willingness to act upon those urges, other factors may be involved: power and control issues, traumatic childhood experiences, and troubled families. Child sexual abuse can also be motivated by money, as it is in the case of child prostitution and pornography.
Children who have been sexually abused may show a variety of signs and symptoms, including:
• aggressive behaviour, sleep problems, bed-wetting or soiling
• problems with school work or missing school
• risk taking behaviour during adolescence
• becoming sexually active at a young age
For a few children these effects may be relatively short-term, depending on the individual child, the nature of the abuse and the help they receive. However, for many the effects can last into adulthood and cause a long list of problems, especially mental health problems and drug or alcohol misuse.
In addition to the effects that sexual abuse may have on a child, you may also notice other warning signs, such as a child who:
• suddenly starts to behave differently
• thinks badly or does not look after him or herself
• displays sexually inappropriate behavior, including use of sexual language and sexual information which you would not expect them to know
• has physical symptoms that suggest sexual abuse – these can include anal or vaginal soreness or an unusual discharge, and pregnancy
• avoids being alone with a particular family member
• fears an adult or is reluctant to socialize with them
• tries to tell you about abuse indirectly, through hints or clues
• describes behavior by an adult that suggests they are being ‘groomed’ for future abuse.
You should also be alert to any adults who pay an unusual amount of attention to your child, for example:
• giving your child gifts, toys or favours
• offering to take your child on trips, outings and holidays
• seeking opportunities to be alone with your child.
If you suspect or discover that someone is sexually abusing a child you must get professional advice. Confronting the alleged abuser may give them the opportunity to silence, confuse or threaten the child about speaking out about the abuse. It may also place the child in danger.
You can discuss your concerns with the OOF. Our counsellors will assess the information you give them and can take action on your behalf, if necessary. Alternatively, you can contact your Police.
If you think a child is in immediate danger, contact the police near you, or call the OOF on +2348057507268, without delay.
To help keep your child safe from sexual abuse there are several practical steps that you can take. You can:
• talk to your child to help them understand about their bodies and about sex, if you find this difficult, ask your school for books or leaflets
• build an open and trusting relationship with your child, so they feel they can talk to you about anything
• explain the difference between safe secrets, like a surprise birthday party, and unsafe secrets: things that make them feel unhappy or uncomfortable
• don't leave your child alone with anyone you aren't sure about
• teach your child how to use the Internet safely
• set and teach children to respect family boundaries – every family member has a right to privacy and this includes young children (sleeping arrangements, bathing, dressing etc.)
• teach your child that they have the right to refuse to do anything that their instincts tell them is wrong – teach your children how to say 'No!'
• teach your child to respect themselves and others, this is especially important for young boys to develop healthy relationships with girls
• provide supervision for the Internet, television and films.
Child Sexual Abuse:
What it Is and How to Prevent It
exual abuse of children is a grim fact of life in our society. It is more common than most people realize. Some surveys say that at least 1 out of 5 women and 1 out of 10 men recall sexual abuse in childhood.
Parents need not feel helpless about the problem. The American Academy of Pediatrics provides the following information to help prevent child sexual abuse.
What Is Child Sexual Abuse?
It is any sexual act with a child that is performed by an adult or an older child. Such acts include fondling the child's genitals, getting the child to fondle an adult's genitals, mouth to genital contact, rubbing an adult's genitals on the child, or actually penetrating the child's vagina or anus.
Other, often overlooked, forms of abuse occur. These include an adult showing his or her genitals to a child, showing the child obscene pictures or videotapes, or using the child to make obscene materials.
Could My Child Be Sexually Abused? By Whom?
Boys and girls are most often abused by adults or older children whom they know and who can control them. The offender is known by the victim in 8 out of 10 reported cases. The offender is often an authority figure whom the child trusts or loves. Almost always the child is convinced to engage in sex by means of persuasion, bribes, or threats.
How Would I Know If My Child Is Being Sexually Abused?
You hope that if your child is abused, the child will tell you or someone else about the abuse. Yet, children who are being abused often have been convinced by the abuser that they must not tell anyone about it. A child's first statements about abuse may be sketchy and incomplete. He may only hint about the problem. Some abused children may tell friends about the abuse. A child who is told about or sees abuse in another child may tell an adult.
Parents need to be aware of behavioral changes that may signal this problem. The following symptoms may suggest sexual abuse:
striking, exceptional fear of a person or certain places,
an uncalled-for response from a child when the child is asked if he has been touched by someone,
unreasonable fear of a physical exam,
drawings that are scary or use a lot of black and red,
abrupt change in conduct of any sort,
sudden awareness of genitals and sexual acts and words, and
attempts to get other children to perform sexual acts.
Physical signs of abuse include sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea or herpes. In an exam, a doctor may notice genital or anal changes indicative of abuse.
If My Child Reveals Sexual Abuse, What Should I Do?
Above all, take it seriously, but stay calm. Many children who report abuse are not believed. When a child's plea is ignored, she may not risk telling again. As a result, the child could be victimized for months or years. Millions of children have had their lives torn apart by ongoing sexual abuse.
Make sure you help your child understand that the abuse is not his or her fault. Give lots of love and comfort. If you are angry, don't let your child see it - you do not want the child to think the anger is aimed at her. Let the child know how brave she was to tell you. This is the most important if the child has been abused by a close relative or family friend. Then, tell someone yourself. Get help. Talk to your child's doctor, a counselor, a policeman, a child protective service worker, or a teacher.
Can I Deal with Sexual Abuse in My Family Without Contacting the Authorities?
It is difficult for parents to stop sexual abuse without help from experts. The hard but healthy way to deal with the problem is:
Face the issue.
Take charge of the situation.
Work to avoid future abuse.
Discuss it with your pediatrician, who can provide support and counselling.
Report abuse to your local child protection service agency and ask about crisis support help.
Talking about sexual abuse can be very hard for the child who has been told not to tell by a trusted adult. It can be just as hard for adults if the abuser is close to them. Still, the abuse should be reported to your local child protection agency or your doctor. It is the best thing to do for both the child and the family.
What Will Happen to the Child and the Offender If Sexual Abuse Is Reported?
Cases are checked by the police or a social service agency that looks into reports of suspected child abuse. With the help of a doctor, the police, or social service will decide whether sexual abuse has taken place. Sometimes, the police will let social services handle the case. This may occur if the child is not physically abused and the abuser is a family member. When a child is abused by an non-family member, the matter is usually handled by the police.
After the case is reported, what happens depends on the circumstances. The degree of risk of additional abuse to the child is of first concern to the authorities. The offender or the entire family may be required to attend a treatment program. In some cases, the offender may face criminal charges. If the child's safety is in question, he may be removed from the home. In any event, the child and family will need a great deal of support from relatives and friends.
What Can Parents Do to Prevent Sexual Abuse?
Stay alert to sexual abuse and teach your children what it is. Tell them they can and should say NO! or STOP! to adults who threaten them sexually. Make sure your children know that it's OK to tell you about any attempt to molest them - no matter who the offender is.
We encourages you to take the following steps:
See if your child's school has an abuse prevention program for teachers and children. If it doesn't, get one started.
Talk to your child about sexual abuse. A good time to do this is when your child's school is sponsoring a sexual abuse program.
Teach your child about the privacy of body parts.
Listen when your child tries to tell you something, especially when it seems hard for her to talk about it.
Give your child enough of your time so that the child will not seek attention from other adults.
Know with whom your child is spending time. Be careful about letting your child spend time in out-of-the-way places with other adults or older children. Plan to visit your child's caregiver without notice.
Tell someone in authority if you suspect that your child or some else's child is being abused.
Prevention measures to safeguard your children should begin early, since a number of child abuse cases involve preschoolers. The following guidelines offer age-appropriate topics to discuss with your children:
18 months - Teach your child the proper names for body parts.
3-5 years - Teach your child about private parts of the body and how to say no to sexual advances. Give straightforward answers about sex.
5-8 years - Discuss safety away from home and the difference between good touch and bad touch. Encourage your child to talk about scary experiences.
8-12 years - Stress personal safety. Start to discuss rules of sexual conduct that are accepted by the family.
13-18 years - Stress personal safety. Discuss rape, date rape, sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy.
Your child's teacher, school counselor, or pediatrician can help you teach your child to avoid sexual abuse. The know how this can be done without making your child unduly upset or fearful. For further information on child sexual abuse and other forms of abuse, write to us or send an email to [email protected] or call +2348057507268.
Your pediatrician understands the importance of communication between parents and children. Your doctor is trained to detect the signs of child sexual abuse. Ask your pediatrician for advice on ways to protect your children.